Mongolia is a landlocked country in Northern Asia, strategically located between China and Russia.
The geography of Mongolia is varied with the Gobi Desert to the south and with cold and mountainous regions to the north and west. Much of Mongolia consists of steppes and much of the Gobi Desert. The terrain is one of mountains and rolling plateaus, with a high degree of relief. Overall, the land slopes from the high Altai Mountains of the west and the north to plains and depressions in the east and the south. The Khüiten Peak in extreme western Mongolia on the Chinese border is the highest point (4,374 meters).
Its area is 1,564,116 sq km (ranked 19th in the world) and the average attitude is 1580m. The highest point is Mount of Khuiten culminating at 4374 m altitude in the northwest.
It has the lowest density in the world is 1,6hab / km ².
Landscape: Mountains dominate two thirds of the country, nearly 8% of the territory is covered by forest and most landscapes are wide open prairies, plains and desert. Taiga and forest steppe also cover much of the country.
Climate: The country has a continental climate that is changing very quickly. There are four clear-cut seasons! The temperature range is about 70 ° C between summer and winter. Mongolia is a remarkably sunny country (with relative sunshine 270 days / year). At night you can see an amazing display of stars. Winter is very long (November-April) and it is very cold in winter due to the high altitude of the country. In summer it is warmer in the Gobi in the south and in winter it is north of the country the lowest temperatures found.
Population: Mongolia is home to a wide variety of ethnic groups and 2.7 million inhabitants according to the census of 2010, 60% of the population is under 35 years of which 60% are under 18! The number of newborns is growing very rapidly (Baby Boom). The government is pro-natalist policy to increase the population.
Government: Mongolia has a parliamentary government with a president. The president is elected in general elections. Parliamentary and presidential elections are held every four years. The president can not make more than two terms.
Administrative subdivisions: Mongolia is divided into 21 aimags (provinces), which are composed of 315 sums (small villages). There are two other major cities after the capital Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan and Erdenet. Each aimag has a capital where infrastructure is more developed.
Telecommunications: Mongolia, most hotels and business centers offer direct international line, as well as telex, fax and internet connection. The most popular companies in Mongolia communication: Mobicom and Unitel-GSM, Skytel, Gmobile-CDMA.
Currency: Tugrog (MNT). Currently (01/2012), 1 euro = 1800 MNT
All times are UTC / GMT +8 hours
Energy: There are a lot of coal for electricity generation. Part of the electricity is imported from Russia. Wind and solar energy are used locally on a small scale in Mongolia, but the potential for expansion in this area is considerable.
Capital: The largest city in the country is Ulaanbaatar ("Red Hero"). Over 40% of the total population lives there. It became a city in 2006 with one million inhabitants. It is the economic, political, educational and cultural center of Mongolia.
Mongolian language: the Mongols speak their own language, Mongolian. It is a language of Altaic origin as Turkish, Japanese and Korean. Mongolian has some regional differences in pronunciation, causing several local dialects. Although the Mongols of Inner Mongolia (China) speak Mongolian, they have a different accent. Kazakhs, the minority group in the country, speak Kazakh. The Cyrillic alphabet has been used since 1940 The youth of today are relearning the traditional Mongolian script Uigurjin which had not been used since 1940 in school. There are some newspapers and magazines that are published in traditional Mongolian script.