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Bus stations in China

Unlike flights and trains in China, bus tickets tend to have more availability, giving you the flexibility to change your itinerary at a moment’s notice. You don't need to bought a bus ticket earlier than a day in advance.  Chinese buses often run at a higher frequency than flights in China or trains. Most of the time you don’t have to worry about booking in advance because there will be a bus between two cities that runs at least once every hour, if not more. Compared to Chinese airports and train stations, security at a bus station is a breeze. You can arrive at a bus station any earlier than 30 minutes before my departure and you will still end up waiting for 15 minutes.
Most of the time, Chinese bus stations are located in the heart of a city as opposed to airports and train stations which are usually on the edge of town. This can not only save you time, it also saves you the expense of a taxi into town. 
Generally speaking, there are two basic kinds of buses in China: the seated bus and the sleeper bus. Sleeper buses also usually have A/C, an entertainment system and heating, although it all depends on the age of the bus you’re riding. Beds are priced higher for the top bunk than the bottom bunk in a sleeper bus.
With the exception of small towns, most cities in China have a number of different bus stations scattered around.

Often, bus stations are categorized by which direction their buses head (north, south, east or west). Others by which specific city or region they service.

You may to have an official form of ID (your passport) in order to purchase bus tickets. Once your ticket is bought, you can’t transfer this ticket to anybody else without returning it and buying a new one.

Basic information about Afghanistan

Afghanistan covers an area of 652,230 km2 and has no access to the sea.

Afghanistan, home to a diverse population of around 32 million, comprises primarily Pashtuns and Tajiks, constituting 42% and 27% of the populace, respectively. This rich tapestry of people also includes significant Uzbek (9%), Hazara, Aimaq (4%), and Turkmen (3%) communities, each contributing to the cultural fabric of the nation.

Islam stands as the predominant and unifying faith in Afghanistan, shaping the lives and cultural landscape of its diverse population. The vast majority of Afghans practice Islam, with its teachings and traditions intricately woven into the daily fabric of their lives, influencing customs, values, and societal norms.

There are three types of electrical outlets likely to be found in Afghanistan. They are the old British standard BS-546, the newer British standard BS-1363 and the European standard CEE-7/7 "Schukostecker" or "Schuko".

Dress conservatively, especially in more traditional areas. For women, covering the head and dressing modestly is advisable. For men, conservative attire is respectful.

Always ask for permission before taking photos, especially of people. Respect religious sites and local customs.

Greet people warmly but be mindful of gender norms. Men typically shake hands.

Accept offers of hospitality, especially with food. Always use your right hand for eating; the left hand is considered unclean. 

Learning a few basic phrases in Dari or Pashto shows respect and can help in communication.






Basic information about Pakistan

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's fifth-most populous country, with a population exceeding 225.2 million, and has the world's second-largest Muslim population. Pakistan is the 33rd-largest country by area, spanning 881,913 square kilometers. It has a 1,046-kilometer coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south, and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China to the northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the north, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Capital Islamabad
33 ° 41′30 ″ N 73 ° 03′00 ″ E
Largest city Karachi
24 ° 51′36 ″ N 67 ° 00′36 ″ E
Official languages : Urdu and English
Regional languages ​​Punjabi (39%) • Pashto (18%) • Sindhi (15%) • Saraiki (12%) • Balochi (3%) • Hindko (2%) • Pothwari (1%) • Brahui (1%) • Kashmiri (0.17%)
Ethnic groups :
44.7% Punjabis
15.4% Pashtuns
14.1% Sindhis
8.4% Saraikis
7.6% Muhajirs
3.6% Balochs
6.3% Others
96.47% Islam (official) 
2.14% Hinduism
1.27% Christianity
0.9% Ahmadiyya
0.02% Others

Government Federal parliamentary constitutional republic:
• President : Arif alvi
• Prime Minister: Imran khan

Legislature Parliament
• Upper house: Senate
• Lower house : National Assembly

Independence from the United Kingdom
• Dominion : 14 August 1947
• Islamic Republic : 23 March 1956
• Last polity withdrawn : 12 January 1972
• Current constitution : 14 August 1973

• Total : 881,913 km2 (340,509 sq mi) (33rd)
• Water (%) : 2.86
• 2021 estimate
Increase 225,199,937 (5th)
• 2017 census : Increase 207.8 million
• Density : 244.4 / km2 (633.0 / sq mi) (56th)
GDP (PPP) 2021 estimate
• Total: Increase $ 1.110 trillion  (26th)
• Per capita: Increase $ 5,839 (139th)
GDP (nominal) 2021 estimate
• Total: Increase $ 296 billion (43rd)
• Per capita: Increase $ 1,543 (159th)

Currency Pakistani rupee (₨) (PKR)
Time zone UTC + 05: 00 (PST)

Mains electricity 230 V – 50 Hz
Driving side left 
Calling code +92
ISO 3166 code PK
Internet TLD .pk


Yurta is a small dwelling, decorated with hand-made felt carpets and strips. Having its routes at ancient Turkic tribes yurta took all the best from many centuries' experience of people. Kyrgyz tribes, occupied with nomadic cattle-breeding in mountains, worked out the best type of transportable dwelling that is easily disjointed, moved on pack animals and again set.

Yurta consists of wooden construction and felt cover.

Latticed sliding walls (kerege) consist of separate links. They define sizes of yurta. From the external side kerege are covered with mats, made of cheegrass stalk. It lets air the dwelling and the same time keep it from wind and dust.

Sphere roof of yurta is made of sharp-cut bend from one side poles - uuk. By one side, where bend is, they are fixed in the upper part of wall basis, by other side they are set to the wholes in tunduk - wooden circle at the top of yurta.

Yurta is covered by felts of different types. That are tunduk jabuu, tuunduk, uzuktor. Felt cover is connected with its frame by narrow woven and leather stripes. The cover of tunduk is moveable and the hole for smoke is easily opened in the morning and closed in the night with help of long lassos. The doorway is covered with felt or woven ornamented curtain.

Yurta can be set in 1 hour.

Internal and external sides of yurta are rich decorated with different ornamented items made of felt, applications, braided patterned fringe, multicolored tassels (chachyk) and patterned braid (terenchek boo).

During the years not only yurta but its interior has changed. Right side of the yurta was considered women's part (epchi jak). Here colored bags with felt applications, clothes, head-dresses, jewelry, needle work of mistress and pottery were kept. Place for food was separated with screen from ornamented mat (chygdak).

Place in the opposite of entrance was considered honorary (tor). At this part of the wall there was the row of trunks where rarely used patterned carpets were laid. The more carpets - the richer people living in the yurta. At the floor of the yurta only the best carpets - ala-kiyiz were put, then shirdaks, and on them - narrow quilts (toshok) or fur lays - koldolosh. Tor was the centre of yurta. It was place for the most honorary guests. "When you are the guest, don't sit to tor". If the person more honorary than you will come, than the master will tell you "Give place to him!". And you will have to give place before all the guests. So when you are guest, take less honorary place. And the master of the house will come and tell: "Respected, please, go to tor", then your authority will go up before everybody"). Before sitting guests they were put the kind of table-cloth - dostarkhan. In the middle of the yurta they burnt the fire and cooked the meals. It is called kolomto. Rich people cooked their dishes in special yurtas - ashkanas. Poor people lived in smoked small yurtas (boz ui, kara ui), where they kept not only their utilities (bed, pottery), but in the cold time of the year - new born calves and lambs.

In yurta people are always surrounded by comfortable carpets, woven and embroidered covers, blankets and pillows and other utilities often made by mistress herself. Materials that she needs are felt, fleecy cloths, fur, textile, cheegrass, the main graphic is color and ornament.

The coloring of Kyrgyz national cloths, carpets, embroideries is saturated and cheerful. It's composed of strong, contrast colors, where warm colors - red and brown prevail. In the past masters used natural colors. Ornament has its origin from far Bronze epoch, but gradually it was improved and expanded. Its elements were taken from flora and fauna that were surrounding the nomadic people. The main motif of Kyrgyz ornament was curl "kochkor" - stylized ram's horn. Sinuous line with rhythmically placed curls is named "kyal" - "dream", "fantasy". It also reminds the branch of flourishing tree.

Visa for Mongolia

Foreign national must be provided with a Mongolian visa valid to pass or enter the territory of Mongolia, passport or another valid travel document recognized by the Mongolian authorities. The visa application must include the following documents:

Visas are issued within 7 calendar days from the day of presenting all documents. Documents are accepted with a visa support letter from the Diplomatic-consular service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Mongolia. Mongolian visa is not required for the citizens of below listed foreign countries and regions to visit Mongolia on basis of the passport type, purpose and duration of the visit in accordance with the Bilateral Agreement of Mongolia with those countries:

  • USA ( Not required for up to 90 days or multiple entry-exit visa is required for duration of 2-10 years),
  • China (Not required),
  • Malaysia Israel, Cuba, Thailand, Turkey, South Korea, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary (Not required for up to 30 days)
  • Philippines (Not required for up to 21 days)
  • Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia (Not required for up to 14 days)
  • Macao, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Georgia, Belarus, Kirgizstan, Moldavia, Tajikistan, India, Vietnam, Czech, Slovakiа, Brazil, Yugoslavia, Mexico, Chile, North Korea, Laos (Not required for up to 90 days)

Visa for Kazakhstan

In general, all foreign nationals are required to have business or tourist visas to enter Kazakhstan. To obtain a Kazakhstan visa foreign citizens should apply to a Kazakhstan diplomatic/consular institution in their country of residence.

Documents required for the Kazakhstan visa:

The passport should not expire earlier than six months after the validity term of the requested visa. Other necessary documents will be determined by the consul at the time of application.

Visas are issued within 7 calendar days from the day of presenting all documents. Documents are accepted with a visa support letter from the Diplomatic-consular service of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

In order to get single entry official, private, tourist or business visa to Kazakhstan at the Embassies of Kazakhstan, nationals of the following countries do not need letter of invitation (Kazakhstan visa support): Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Great Britain, Greece, Denmark, Italy, Ireland, Iceland, Germany, Japan, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Malaysia, Monaco, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Spain, Portugal, Singapore, the USA, Switzerland, Sweden, Finland, France.

Citizens of some countries are eligible for visa free entry to the Republic of Kazakhstan for the period of up to 90 days (depending on the country). According to the new decree of the government, there is a list of countries whose citizens may visit Kazakhstan for the period of up to 15 days due to temporary cancellation of visas until the end of 2017.

Visa for China

1. According to bilateral agreements, citizens of some countries (List of Agreements on Mutual Visa Exemption between the P.R. China and Foreign Countries) holding appropriate passports may enter China without a visa. 

2. Citizens of Singapore, Brunei and Japan holding ordinary passports may enter China without a visa through the ports of entry open to foreigners provided that they come to China for tourism, family visit, business or transit, and intend to stay in China for no more than 15 days. However, the following personnel of these three countries must apply for a visa in advance if:
(1) They are holders of ordinary passports, and come to China for tourism, family visit or business, and intend to stay more than 15 days;

(2) They are holders of ordinary passports, and come to China for study, employment, permanent residence or on a news reporting mission; and

(3) They are holders of Japanese diplomatic and service (official) passports (according to the bilateral agreements, the diplomatic and service passport holders of Singapore, Brunei can stay in China for no more than 30 days without a Chinese visa). 

3. Foreigners holding ordinary passports of the countries having diplomatic relations with China and on a tour to Hong Kong or Macao, and participating in group tours to the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River) Delta Area for a stay of no more than 6 days organized by the travel services legally registered in Hong Kong or Macao do not need to apply for a visa. The Zhu Jiang Delta Area refers to the administrative area of the following cities: Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Jiangmen, Zhaoqing, and Huizhou. For going on a tour to Shantou, the aforementioned group is required to stay within the administrative area of Shantou and leave China from there directly. 

4. Foreigners who have confirmed onward tickets and seats on international flights and directly transit through China and stay for no more than 24 hours within the airport boundaries do not need to apply for a transit visa. However, anyone desiring to go beyond the airport boundaries temporarily should obtain permission from the immigration authorities at the airport. 

5.Citizens of 51 countries with valid international travel documents and air tickets for a connecting flight with confirmed date of flight and seat for a third country (region) can apply for the 72-hour transit visa exemption at ports of entry in Beijing Capital International Airport, Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport, Shanghai Pudong International Airport, Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport,Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport, Chongqing Jiangbei International Airport,Shenyang Taoxian International Airport,Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport,Hangzhou Xiaoshan International Airport,Guilin Liangjiang Airport,Kunming Changshui International Airport,Xi’an Xianyang International Airport, Xiamen Gaoqi International Airport, Haerbin Taiping International Airport, Wuhan Tianhe International Airport, and Tianjin Binhai International Airport.

6. Citizens holding ordinary passports of the following 21 countries and on a group tour (minimum of five persons) to Hainan Province for a stay of no longer than 15 days, organized by international travel services approved by the National Tourism Administration of China and registered in Hainan Province, do not need to apply for a visa: Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, the United Kingdom, France, Austria, Italy, Switzerland, Sweden, Spain, the Netherlands, the United States of America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Finland, Denmark, Norway, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.

Citizens holding ordinary passports of the following three countries and on a group tour (minimum of two persons) to Hainan Province for a stay of no more than 21 days, organized by international travel services approved by the National Tourism Administration of China and registered in Hainan Province, do not need to apply for a visa: Republic of Korea, Germany and Russia. 

7. Foreigners holding a valid Foreigner’s Permanent Residence Card of the PRC or Residence Permit for Foreigners in the PRC may enter China without a visa.

8. Foreigners holding an APEC Business Travel Card may enter China without a visa.

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